Bitcoin y Criptomonedas Explicadas

Bitcoin y Criptomonedas Explicadas

Bitcoin es una criptomoneda inventada en 2008 por una persona o grupo que usa el nombre Satoshi Nakamoto. Visita:
Su empleo comenzó en 2009, cuando se lanzó su implementación como software de código abierto.
Según CoinMarketCap, actualmente hay 8.528 Criptomonedas. En un sistema de criptomonedas, una comunidad conocida como mineros mantiene la integridad, la seguridad y el equilibrio de las cuentas. Esta comunidad utiliza sus computadoras u otro hardware especializado para validar y fechar transacciones, agregándolas a una base de datos colectiva.
Muchas criptomonedas están diseñadas para disminuir gradualmente la producción de unidades, imponiendo un límite al número total de unidades que pueden estar en circulación. Por ejemplo, Bitcoin en la fecha de producción de este programa tiene una cantidad corriente de 18,633,931 monedas y un suministro máximo de 21,000,000 monedas.
Según NBC News en un comunicado de prensa publicado el 18 de febrero de 2021, hace un par de días, la capitalización total del mercado de Bitcoin y criptomonedas alcanzó un récord histórico de $ 1 billón.
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How to Do School When Motivation Has Gone Missing – The New York Times

The school year is still young, yet parents and students alike may have noticed that academic motivation is already low. No surprise there. Whether school is remote, in-person or hybrid, many students have come to feel that, if this year were a meal, it would be all vegetables and no dessert. Gone, or hamstrung by screens, masks and plexiglass, are the encouraging company of classmates and teachers, the camaraderie of tackling tedious work alongside friends and the school day boost of exchanging a few words with one’s crush. Still here is the steady stream of assignments, assessments and lectures.

With the bulk of the academic year yet to come, here’s what teenagers can do to equip themselves to continue to move forward during this difficult and frustrating time.

Educational psychologists recognize two main kinds of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation takes over when we have a deep and genuine interest in a task or topic and derive satisfaction from the work or learning itself. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, gets us to work by putting the outcome — like a paycheck or a good grade — in mind. When what we’re doing feels fascinating, such as reading a book we can’t put down, we’re propelled by intrinsic motivation; when we pay attention in a class or meeting by promising ourselves 10 minutes of online shopping for seeing it through, we’re summoning extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation is the one that tends to be prized in educational circles, and with good reason. It is linked to higher levels of academic achievement and greater psychological well-being. That said, intrinsic motivation can’t always be summoned or sustained. Young people may find themselves intrinsically motivated on Mondays, but not Fridays, or at the start of an evening study session but not as the night wears on.

It’s also true that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation aren’t mutually exclusive. It happens all the time that students both take an inherent interest in their academic work and care about their grades.

Rather than privileging one form of motivation above the other, it’s better to treat them as different gears, each of which helps young people down the academic road. In my experience, the students who are most adept at tackling their schoolwork know how to work both gears, shifting back and forth between them as needed.

Intrinsic motivation is extremely useful, giving even serious work a sense of effortlessness. But it’s not a piece of cake to conjure up, and conditions matter. It is most likely to flourish in situations where students feel autonomous, supported and competent, but often fails to take hold when they feel controlled, pressured or unsure.

In practice, this means that young people should be given as much say over their learning as possible, such as giving them options for how to solve problems, approach unfamiliar topics or practice new skills. This can also involve, whenever possible, letting tweens and teenagers decide the order in which they tackle their assignments, how they want to prepare for tests or where they feel they study most effectively, even if that means that their papers carpet their bedroom floors.

Should adults be cheerleaders for our teenagers? Opinion is split. Some researchers contend that praise helps to cultivate intrinsic motivation, while others say that it undermines it by introducing an extrinsic reward. There is, however, an area of consensus: the utility of praise depends on how it’s done. Specifically, praise fosters intrinsic motivation when it’s sincere, celebrates effort rather than talent (“you worked really hard,” vs. “you’re so smart”) and communicates encouragement, not pressure (“you’re doing really well,” vs. “you’re doing really well, as I hoped you would”).

This is such a hard year. So long as we do it right, there’s no reason for adults to be stingy with praise.

Finally, intrinsic motivation is all but impossible to muster for material that feels out of reach. Teachers and parents should keep a close eye for students who are checking out because they feel lost and work to recalibrate the material or the expectations.

Let’s be honest: Hard-working, conscientious adults often rely on extrinsic motivators — even when they love their work. Engaging work might be its own reward much of the time, but sometimes we keep our noses to the grindstone only by holding out the incentive of a cup of coffee, some chocolate, a vanquished to-do list, or all of the above. Adults often have refined strategies for getting through our work and, as a first step, we should talk openly with teenagers about the tactics we employ when intrinsic motivation isn’t happening.

Also, teens and parents can think together about strategies to help face down a long list of assignments. Would it help to have a parent work quietly nearby in silent solidarity? Would the teenager like to study in 25-minute intervals followed by five-minute breaks to stretch, snack or check social media? Might the promise of getting to pick the weekend family movie make that last bit of work more bearable?

Adults should be ready to stand back and admire the fantastic solutions that young people land upon themselves. Some adolescents buckle down with the help of a YouTube study buddy, others hold out the carrot of a video game or run once the work is done.

I recently learned of a 10th-grader who makes time-lapse videos of herself while she does her homework. Knowing that she’s on camera keeps her focused, and having a record of her efforts (and the amusing faces she makes while concentrating) turns out to be a powerful reward. While intrinsic motivation has its upsides, there should be no shame in the external motivation game. It’s about getting the work done.

This year, even more than usual, adults are asking so much of adolescents. One way to help is by talking openly about strategies that help muster motivation. These conversations will help teenagers now, and also long after the virus is gone.

En autopartes, México afianza su liderazgo en Estados Unidos – El Economista

México exportó autopartes al mercado de Estados Unidos por un valor de 42,835 millones de dólares de enero a octubre de 2020, lo que representó una participación de mercado de 39.9%, de acuerdo con estadísticas del Departamento de Comercio estadounidense.

México ha incrementado esa porción en cada uno de los últimos 12 años, desde su participación de 29.4% en 2009, considerando años completos, con excepción del año en curso.

Coyunturalmente, este logro de México se da luego de cuatro meses de la entrada en vigor del Tratado entre México, Estados Unidos y Canadá (T-MEC), el cual exige una mayor incorporación de insumos, partes y componentes para que los autos y camiones puedan gozar del no pago de aranceles en el comercio intrarregional.

En el más reciente tramo, México incrementó su participación de mercado de 39.6 a 39.9% comparando los periodos de enero a octubre de 2019 y 2020, respectivamente, en el total de importaciones de autopartes realizadas por Estados Unidos.

En contrapunto, Canadá, el otro socio de Estados Unidos en el T-MEC, registró una caída en su porción de mercado de 10.8 a 10.6% con las mediciones de esos mismos plazos

Desde otro ángulo, México triplicó en una década sus envíos de partes automotrices al mercado estadounidense, desde 19,361 millones de dólares en 2009 a 61,682 millones de dólares en 2019, periodo en el cual crecieron nominalmente estas ventas mexicanas año tras año.

Sin embargo, en los 10 primeros meses del año actual, México sufrió una caída interanual de 17.7% en este indicador; pero mantuvo su competitividad relativa porque las importaciones estadounidenses de autopartes originarias de todo el mundo descendieron 22.3% en igual lapso. El T-MEC cambió las reglas de origen para el sector, requiriendo que 75% del contenido automotriz se produzca en América del Norte y que las autopartes principales se originen en Estados Unidos, Canadá o México.

Después de un período de introducción gradual, sólo los productos que cumplan estos requisitos de contenido recibirán acceso libre de impuestos

Actualmente, México es el quinto mayor productor de autopartes en todo el mundo, con 99,000 millones de dólares en ingresos anuales y es el mercado de exportación más grande para autopartes de Estados Unidos.

Como proveedores externos de autopartes en el mercado de Estados Unidos, por debajo de México se ubicaron en los 10 primeros meses del 2020: Canadá con 11,341 millones de dólares (-19.7% interanual), China con 10,044 millones de dólares (-24%), Japón con 9,202 millones de dólares (-23.1%) y Corea del Sur con 6,341 millones (-16.5 por ciento).

En general, las ventas y la producción de vehículos ligeros automotrices en los mercados principales de América del Norte y Europa continuaron aumentando en el tercer trimestre de 2020 luego de las disminuciones relacionadas con la pandemia de Covid-19 y experimentadas en la primera mitad de 2020.

A principios de 2020, las empresas desarrollaron e implementaron protocolos Covid-19, herramientas de evaluación y documentos de orientación para respaldar el objetivo de administrar la salud de sus empleados.

Hoy día, incluida la prospectiva, se cree que los impactos a corto plazo más severos de la pandemia ocurrieron en el primer semestre de 2020.

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Fitness watch: Why you may have lost the motivation to exercise and how to get back on track –

In the early phases of lockdown, the streets were teeming with runners and living rooms were a blur of uncoordinated star jumps and lunges. In fact, physical activity levels in the UK peaked around mid-to-late May, just before lockdown restrictions began to be eased. Now, after months of fluctuating social restrictions, many people are reporting on social media that they’ve suddenly lost their motivation to exercise.

The truth is that motivation is simply returning to normal. The UK weather was ideal for exercise in April and May, and many of us had more time available to squeeze in a workout. Two major barriers to exercise were removed. Usually, motivation is a battle of different choices. In normal circumstances, exercise fights against many other appealing leisure pursuits, such as going to the pub, the cinema, or spending time with friends. But during the most severe part of the national lockdown, the choice was either to go outside for exercise, or stay home all day. The motivational odds shifted in favour of exercise.

Lockdowns around the world also acted in a similar way to a new year, new school term, or birthday. Significant dates and events can disrupt routines and provide a chance to make a fresh start, so many of us began to exercise. But, like new year’s resolutions, our motivation steadily faded over time.

The type of motivation needed to start a new behaviour is often very different to the motivation needed to sustain one. Most people start exercising because they know it’s good for them, and outside pressures (such as from TV adverts, or friends) tell them they should. “Should-do” motives are an effective way to start a new behaviour.

But as lockdown eased, barriers to exercise appeared again – such as being able to spend time with friends at the pub, or the need to get ones children ready for school again. Relying on “should-do” motives in these scenarios requires considerable mental effort and willpower. Unfortunately, one of the most interesting aspects of human motivation is that we dislike the feeling of effort and willpower and tend to avoid it. The pub, the kids, tiredness and work all win the battle against exercise. “Should-do” motives are terrible at sustaining exercise behaviour.

Even some people who exercised religiously are reporting loss of motivation. But again, the type of motivation driving their exercise may explain why this has happened. People who exercise to seek approval from others or to boost their self-esteem often report increased anxiety and body disatisfaction, despite high levels of exercise. Lockdown (and gym closures) may have increased these negative feelings because the situation meant that people weren’t getting the compliments and boosts to their ego that they sought.

To stop these motivational declines, a dual approach is needed that makes exercise easy in the short-term while developing strong long-term motivation. When it comes to long-term motivation, many psychologists believe your identity is one of the most resilient motivational systems. Identity can often be a vague term and difficult to describe, but put simply, “be” goals are more motivating than “do” goals. So instead of “doing” exercise, focus on “being” someone who exercises.

These “be” motives require much less mental effort to act on and you will naturally seek opportunities to demonstrate your “exerciser” identity. It’s less mentally exhausting “being” an exerciser, compared to continuously trying to “do” exercise, because attention is naturally drawn to opportunities to exercise and away from other temptations. In some ways this isn’t fair. Those people who have exercised for years and see themselves as an exerciser find it very easy to be motivated to exercise. Those of us who don’t view ourselves as exercisers, but want to exercise, require a lot of mental effort and willpower to leave the house.

This process takes some time, so we also need quick motivational fixes while our healthy exerciser identity develops. In the short-term, the guiding principle should be to minimise the effort required to exercise:

  1. Plan your exercise for when it’s easiest to do. For many this may mean exercising as soon as possible in the day before temptations and obstacles that require effort to overcome begin to appear.
  2. Make it easy to exercise. Get your sportswear out of the drawer and ready the evening before. Plan exercise that does not require travel to a specific venue. Do as many things as you can beforehand so that, when the time comes, starting your workout is easy.
  3. Break the process of exercising into chunks. For example, getting changed into sportswear only require a little effort. Stepping out the door only requires a little effort. Before you know it, it’s harder to not exercise than to exercise.
  4. Do what you enjoy. It’s simple and requires minimal motivation to repeat exercise that felt good. If you find yourself wanting to jump rope or dance instead of lifting weights or jogging, it’s better to do what you want to do, and requires a lot less mental effort than trying to force yourself to do something you think you should do.

While many of us aren’t looking forward to further social restrictions, this might give us another opportunity to develop a healthier lifestyle. A focus on “being” an exerciser and minimising mental effort will lead to fewer sudden declines in exercise motivation over the long term.

This article first appeared in The Conversation.

Ian Taylor is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Loughborough University

TPS/DED/Permiso de Trabajo para Venezolanos en EEUU Explicado

TPS/DED/Permiso de Trabajo para Venezolanos en EEUU Explicado

El Gobierno del Presidente Demócrata Joe Biden, acaba de Autorizar el TPS para Venezuela, más en, beneficiendo a todos aquellos venezolanos que se encontraban dentro del Territorio de Estados Unidos de América, al momento de su publicación en el Registro Federal en fecha 9 de Marzo de 2021. De igual forma se publicaron los lineamientos generales del DED autorizado por la gestión anterior en fecha 19 de Enero de 2021. Ambos instrumentos, permiten a los venezolanos, de acuerdo a ciertos parámetros, presentes en los EEUU a la fecha de su publicación, obtener Protección Temporal del Estado, así como Autorización para Trabajar, durante el periodo de su vigencia. De igual forma impacta a aquellos venezolanos que se encuentran con Aplicaciones de Asilo pendientes de revisión. TE CUENTO EL RESTO EN EL VIDEO O PODCAST!

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