France in The 100 Years’ War

France in The 100 Years' War

In this History of Nations and Peoples Mini-Documentary, we discuss the epic medieval story of the 100 Years’ War between France and England.

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Music performed by Kevin Macleod Available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
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Picture sources:

By PHGCOM – self-made, personal photograph in Saint-Denis Basilica, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By Jean de Liège († 1381) – Acoma. Vlastní dílo (own work), CC BY 3.0,
By Phidelorme – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
CC BY-SA 3.0,
By TimeLine100YearsWar.png: Mr Timelinederivative work: Nev1 – This file was derived from: TimeLine100YearsWar.png:, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Goran tek-en, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By © Sémhur / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By Jerrye & Roy Klotz, MD – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Troyeseffigy – Own work, CC BY 3.0,

French Empires and Republics – Documentary

French Empires and Republics - Documentary

In this video, we look at the epic history of France from 1453 to the modern day.

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Instagram: @Fire_of_Learning
Twitter: @Fire_Learning

Music performed by Kevin Macleod Available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
Download available at

"The Pyre"

Picture sources:

By France_Pays_bretons_map.jpg: Mikael Bodlore-Penlaezderivative work: Pethrus (talk) – France_Pays_bretons_map.jpgThis W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., CC BY-SA 3.0,
CC BY-SA 3.0,
By PHGCOM – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By No machine-readable author provided. Calips assumed (based on copyright claims). – No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0,
By see – NASA, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Dlanglois – You may select the license of your choice., CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Sir IainThis W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape. – Main source:"Deutschland: 1618-1648", in: Josef Engel (ed.), Grosser Historischer Weltatlas, herausgegeben vom Bayerischen Schulbuch-Verlag: Dritter Teil, Neuzeit, Munich and Tübingen, 1967, p. 122.Other sources:"Hessen-Kassel und Hessen-Darmstadt 1604-1638", in: Geschichtlicher Atlas von Hessen, url:"Hessen-Kassel in Nordwestdeutschland", in: Geschichtlicher Atlas von Hessen, url:"Braunsweich-Lüneburg im Jahre 1625", in: Gudrun Pischke (ed.), Geschichtlicher Handatlas von Niedersachsen, Neumünster, 1989, p. 35b.Carsten Porskorg Rasmussen (ed.), Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg, Neumünster, 2008, p. 21., CC BY-SA 4.0,
By ziegelbrenner (talk • contribs) – Own work, source of Information: Putzger – Historischer Weltatlas, 89. Auflage, 1965, CC BY 2.5,
By Brocken Inaglory – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Pinpin – Own work from Image:Nouvelle-France1750.png1)Les Villes françaises du Nouveau Monde : des premiers fondateurs aux ingénieurs du roi, XVIe-XVIIIe siècles / sous la direction de Laurent Vidal et Emilie d’Orgeix /Éditeur: Paris: Somogy 1999.2) Canada-Québec 1534-2000/ Jacques Lacoursière, Jean Provencher et Denis Vaugeois/Éditeur: Sillery (Québec): Septentrion 2000.Map 1 ) (2008) The Forts of Ryan’s taint in Northeast America 1600-1763, Osprey Publishing, pp. 6– ISBN: 9781846032554.Map 2 ) René Chartrand (20 April 2010) The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast 1600-1763, Osprey Publishing, p. 7 ISBN: 9781846035043., CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Photo: Myrabella / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Psy guy – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Some video map sources used:

Check Out These Non-Obvious Megatrends

We’ve reached that time of year.  I make my predictions for small business. I experienced a good run for about 5 years. But this changed the last few years. So this week, I called in an expert.

2020 Megatrends

Rohit Bhargava founded the Non-Obvious Company. And for the last 10 years, he published quite accurately the trends for the next year. This week, on the Small Business Radio Show, Rohit looked at the decade’s megatrends in his final book of the series. These include:

Megatrend #2: Ungendering-  We see traditional gender divisions replaced with a more fluid understanding of gender identity. As a result, this forces a reevaluation according to Rohit of how small business owners target and talk to customers.

Megatrend #3: Instant Knowledge Today customers consume bite-sized knowledge on demand. They benefit from learning more quickly. Rohit suggests companies need to communicate with their prospects this way. And keep it up through the entire customer journey.

Megatrend #4: Revivalism- Rohit believes that customers are overwhelmed by technology and complexity, so they now seek out simpler experiences that offer nostalgia and remind them of a more trustworthy time.

Megatrend #7: Purposeful Profit – According to Rohit, consumers and employees are demanding more sustainable and ethical practices from the companies they do business with or work for. This is pushing companies to adapt their products and take public stands on issues that matter most to their customers and employees.

Megatrend #9: Protective Tech – People worry about how technology invades  their privacy. Yet, we rely on predictive tech to keep us safe and convenient. Rohit emphasizes consumers must make the privacy trade-offs required to make this work.

Listen to the entire interview on the Small Business Radio Show where Rohit reveals more 2020 megatrends that will affect every small business plus his biggest successful and failed predictions this past decade.


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How to Get Rich (In a Small Business)

A reader wants to know how to get rich in a small business.

“I want to start a small business and hope to become wealthy.  Do I need to start a certain type of business? Do I have to give up my personal life? What does it take to get rich?”  – Marcus from Coeur d’Alene, Idaho

Rich people come from all types of industries. It’s possible to get rich in an endless variety of businesses.

What’s more, you do not need to be brilliant. You do not have to be a workaholic. You do not need to have some unique talent if you want to get rich, either.

Another common misconception is that you must be in a high-flying industry.  There are plenty of rich business owners in ordinary everyday businesses (although you must choose a profitable business – more below).

Here’s the secret most people don’t know.

The most common way to get rich is to be disciplined, make smart money moves and manage your finances well.

That’s it.

Getting rich is about how you live your life and run your business, and what you do with the money you make.

So, back to your question:  how do people get rich in a small business?  Mostly by adopting good behaviors and money habits in their businesses and personal lives. They have financial discipline. They manage their money well.  And that’s something anyone can learn to do.

To get rich take these 10 steps:

1. Start your Day Early

Early birds who start work early before others swear by the productivity and creativity boost. Each day you get a couple of uninterrupted hours before customers and employees start contacting you.  You also benefit from extra thinking and planning time.

The more time for concentration, the more you can focus on how to think up new opportunities to get rich from. It’s not about working harder, just smarter. Give yourself uninterrupted time to think, set goals and plan.

If you are a committed night owl, you may be able to get the same benefit — just after hours.  It’s the same thing, only in reverse. You are working when others are not.  This will help you build wealth.

2. Have the Courage to Take Risks

As a group, entrepreneurs and business owners tend to have a higher threshold for taking risks than the general public.

Pete Warhurst, the founder of PODS, was already in the traditional storage business when he came up with the idea of portable storage units. He says you can’t be afraid of risk – just be calculated.

“You’ve come up with an idea, and your gut and instincts tell you it’s a good idea, be willing to take the risk. But monitor the decisions you make and be willing to admit when you made a bad one and change it and fix it,” he is quoted as saying.  He sold the company and eventually it became a billion dollar business.

Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Be prepared to take risks if you want to get rich. But, walk into it with eyes open and protect the downside by managing the risks carefully.

3. Live Below your Means

If you want to get rich and stay rich you have to save and not let your money flow out the door. Many rich people live below their means. Whatever their income is, they spend less than they earn.

Wealthy people love a bargain like the rest of us. For example, one study by Reuters found that millennials enjoy shopping at dollar stores. About 29% of millennials who shopped there earned over $100,000 per year.

If you can accumulate money early, you can invest it and make it grow. Rich business owners:

  • Do not live in the biggest house in the neighborhood.
  • Do not eat out at expensive restaurants every night – they save it for special occasions.
  • Avoid the trappings of an expensive lifestyle  (clothes, travel, etc.)

Their neighbors may look wealthy but remember they may not actually be rich because they spend everything they earn. Rich people, by contrast, know that spending like you are rich is not the way to actually get rich.  They get rich first.  Later when their income is greater they spend.

4. Stick with It; Wealth Accumulates

Slow and steady wins the wealth race.  Set goals to accumulate wealth and grow rich, year after year.

A sudden windfall is nice. Who wouldn’t want to win the lottery or get an inheritance?  But that’s not how most people become rich.

Adopt the right money behaviors, and the passage of time is one factor that helps you get rich. According to one study by Ramsey Solutions, the majority of wealthy people took 28 years to reach a 7-figure net worth. Nearly three fourths of millionaires were aged 55 or older (see chart below).

Time itself helps you become rich.

Young entrepreneurs in your 20s and 30s, take heart. You can be accumulating wealth and on your way to getting rich even if you haven’t achieved that magic 7-figure number yet.  Year after year, whatever wealth you accumulate will grow provided you invest it. These days it’s not hard to invest in mutual funds. You can do it online.

become rich and wealthy over time

5. Pick a Business with Profit Potential

Rich people pick a business with low operating costs and good profit potential.  Thousands of different businesses and industries fit this definition.

Avoid businesses with high operating costs unless you are capable of getting outside investment. An example of a business that would take many years to get profitable would be a biomedical startup — because of the lengthy development and regulatory approval process.

Most of us prefer something that throws off profits much faster.  Also, to get rich without working yourself ragged, pick a simple business. For ideas of the kinds of businesses that can help you become rich, read: Most Profitable Small Businesses.

6. Run a Tight Ship

In a small business, inefficient operating processes cost money in hidden ways. Sloppiness bleeds profits. Rich small business owners run a tight ship.

Be hands on. Inspect the little things. Broken equipment, lax schedules, cluttered premises — all lead to a general air of carelessness that soon spreads like it is contagious. The flip side is, paying attention to details can transform your business into a lean, mean, profit-generating machine. Details mean the difference between:

  • Happy repeat customers (or not!).
  • Products and services with such a great reputation that they are easy to sell (versus ones with horrible online reviews).
  • Equipment and vehicles that run dependably (instead of constantly breaking down causing missed schedules or extra costs).

Expect everyone in the company to pay attention to details. Create a “tight ship” culture. Lead by example and discuss why details are important. Encourage employees to take pride in working in a well-run business. It will pay off for you and also mentors them in what it takes to run a business to get rich.

7. Become a Frugal Business Owner

Rich business owners are known for being frugal about business spending, not just personal spending. Create a business budget and stick to it.  According to one study, a whopping 93% of rich people say they usually stick to budgets they create.

There’s a good test to do before taking on any new business expenditure. Ask yourself, “how many sales do I have to make or how many hours of employee time do I have to pay for, to cover this expense?”  When you put it that way, a proposed expenditure many not be essential.

Here are a few practical tips for staying frugal:

Minimize Recurring Charges

Think twice before every new recurring expenditure, even a $20/month bill. Collectively they can add up to hundreds or thousands per month.

Cancel Unused Subscriptions

Many software tools are subscriptions that keep charging every month whether you use them or not.  Periodically review recurring charges on credit card statements and your PayPal account for dead weight to get rid of.

Comparison Shop your Existing Vendors

Check around for the best deals on all business services or software tools at least once a year.

Grab the Annual Discount

Switch from monthly payments to annual if you are certain you will use the service or tool. Many vendors  offer 10% to 20% off for an annual commitment.

These moves may seem small, but it’s easier to get rich when frugality becomes a daily habit. Also, it has to be more than YOU being a tightwad. Make frugality part of your company culture. Rich business owners train employees, especially managers, to scrutinize every expense.

8. Pay People Well

Best practice is to pay your team the most you can afford, in line with industry pay rates. This may seem to contradict the advice to be frugal, but it is perfectly consistent.

Paying people well reduces hidden expenses like employee turnover, customer-souring bad attitudes, and low productivity due to poor morale.  In the long run, it’s less expensive to pay for quality help and reduce churn.

You may get away with paying very low salaries for a while. But when the job market is booming it eventually catches up and you lose your best talent.  Treat staff as an asset. They can help build the company wealth and their own wealth at the same time as building yours. It’s a triple win.

9. Collect Receivables Timely

Believe it or not, one of the reasons small business owners do not get rich is that they do not collect their money.

Imagine you and your team work your fingers to the bone, figuratively speaking. Yet all the hard work doesn’t pay off. You are incredibly busy, but end up unprofitable.  ‘How did this happen?’ you wonder. The two culprits are:

Failure to Collect

You might be shocked at how many business owners simply fail to send invoices to clients.  They don’t have a system and are disorganized. So the owner ends up working for nothing.

Slow Paying Customers

Routinely waiting 60, 90 or even 120 days to get paid wreaks havoc with cash flow, triggering a domino effect. The business could be forced to take out expensive merchant advances,  or hit expensive credit cards just to pay the rent. You end up paying extra finance charges.

A key performance indicator that a rich small business owner tracks is Days Sales Outstanding (DSO). This measures the amount of time it takes to collect on invoices. In a well-run company the DSO average is under 30 days. A DSO approaching 60 days or longer signals poorer performance, although average collection times vary by industry.

10. Understand Taxes and Investing

Rich small business owners know that smart tax strategies and financing strategies build wealth. If you want your money to grow, put it to work for you.

Also, learn how to take advantage of tax reduction strategies — legally of course.  Take advantage of the top tax deductions for small businesses.

Many wealthy people say that tax-deferred investments like Individual Retirement Accounts or 401(K) plans are instrumental to getting rich.  For business owners, you have even more options including Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) and Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) plans.

Learn the value of compound annual growth rates.  The power of compound annual growth can turn a modest 401(K) into something much greater over time. Adding regular savings to your investments, such as 10% of your income, also has real power to build wealth. That is what it means to make your money work for you to get rich.

Final Thoughts About How to Get Rich

Most small business owners will never come close to generating the kind of revenues of someone like Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. And most of us are just fine with that. You don’t have to be a billionaire to be rich.

Whatever money you earn, follow the example of rich business owners. They treat with respect the money they earn. They know that the way to become rich is to develop habits that give them the ability to accumulate assets and generate more money, year after year.

Images: DepositPhotos, Small Business Trends

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To Be a Great Leader, You Need the Right Mindset

Executive Summary

If organizations want their investment in leadership development to more fully pay off, it is essential that they prioritize mindset development — specifically by targeting growth, learning, deliberative, and promotion leader mindsets. As mindsets shift and develop, leaders’ thinking, learning, and behaviors will naturally improve because they are seeing an interpreting their situations more effectively. The consequence of improving their thinking, learning, and behavior will be enhanced effectiveness and success.

Rick Gayle Studio/Getty Images

Organizations worldwide spend roughly $356 billion on leadership development efforts. Yet, the BrandonHall Group, a human capital research and analyst firm that surveyed 329 organizations in 2013, found that 75% of the organizations rated their leadership development programs as not very effective. Why aren’t companies getting more bang for their leadership development buck? Our latest research suggests it’s likely because most leadership development efforts overlook a specific attribute that is foundational to how leaders think, learn, and behave: their mindsets.

Mindsets are leaders’ mental lenses that dictate what information they take in and use to make sense of and navigate the situations they encounter. Simply, mindsets drive what leaders do and why. For example, they explain why two different leaders might encounter the same situation (e.g., a subordinate disagreement) and process and respond to it very differently. One leader might see the situation as a threat that hinders their authority; another as an opportunity to learn and further develop. When leadership development efforts ignore mindsets, they ignore how leaders see and interpret problems and opportunities like this one.

You may wonder: if mindsets are so important, which ones should you help your leaders develop? In our recent work, we broadly scoured research across the social sciences to understand the various mindsets that individuals may possess. In doing so, we identified four distinct sets of mindsets that have been found to affect leaders’ ability to engage with others, navigate change more successfully, and perform in their leadership roles more effectively.

Growth and Fixed Mindsets. A growth mindset is a belief that people, including oneself, can change their talents, abilities, and intelligence. Conversely, those with a fixed mindset do not believe that people can change their talents abilities and intelligence. Decades of research have found that those with a growth mindset are more mentally primed to approach and take on challenges, take advantage of feedback, adopt the most effective problem-solving strategies, provide developmental feedback to subordinates, and be effortful and persistent in seeking to accomplish goals.

Learning and Performance Mindsets. A learning mindset involves being motivated toward increasing one’s competence and mastering something new. A performance mindset involves being motivated toward gaining favorable judgements (or avoiding negative judgements) about one’s competence. Leaders with a learning mindset, compared to those with a performance mindset, are more mentally primed to increase their competence, engage in deep-level learning strategies, seek out feedback, and exert more of an effort. They are also persistent, adaptable, willing to cooperate, and tend to perform at a higher level.

Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets. Leaders with a deliberative mindset have a heightened receptiveness to all kinds of information as a way to ensure that they think and act as optimally as possible. Leaders with an implemental mindset, as the name suggests, are more focused on implementing decisions, which closes them off to new and different ideas and information. Comparing the two, leaders with deliberative mindsets tend to make better decisions because they are more impartial, more accurate, and less biased in their processing and decision making.

Promotion and Prevention Mindsets. Leaders with a promotion mindset are focused on winning and gains. They identify a specific purpose, goal, or destination and prioritize making progress toward it. Leaders with a prevention mindset, however, are focused on avoiding losses and preventing problems at all costs. Research has found that those with a promotion mindset are more prone to positive thinking, more open to change, more likely to persist despite challenges and setbacks, and demonstrate higher levels of task performance and innovative behaviors compared to leaders with a prevention mindset.

Once you have a better understanding of these mindsets, you can tailor your leadership training programs to unlock most effective ones in your managers. A great example of an organization that leveraged the power of mindsets in this way is Microsoft. From 2001-2014, Microsoft’s market capitalization and stock price largely stayed the same. But, in 2014, when Satya Nadella took over, he made it his mission to revamp the leadership and the culture at Microsoft. In his book, Hit Refresh, Nadella explains that mindsets– particularly growth mindsets– were his primary focus when revamping Microsoft. With this leadership, the company’s market capitalization and stock price has more than tripled.

This is just one example that shows that if organizations want their investment in leadership development to more fully pay off, it is essential that they prioritize mindset development — specifically by targeting growth, learning, deliberative, and promotion mindsets. As leaders cultivate each, their thinking, learning, and behaviors will naturally improve because they are seeing and interpreting their situations more effectively.