KING CHARLES II | The Stuarts: A Bloody Reign | Episode 1 | Reel Truth History Documentaries

KING CHARLES II | The Stuarts: A Bloody Reign | Episode 1 | Reel Truth History Documentaries

Four kings from the House of Stuart sat on the English throne from 1603 to 1688. It was a time of great religious struggle and political instability. The Gunpowder Plot nearly wiped out King James I. The Thirty Years War broke out on the continent. A civil war erupted which led to the public beheading of King Charles I and the birth of a commonwealth headed by Oliver Cromwell. London was ravaged by the plague and the Great Fire of London.

Throughout this series we look at the reign of the Stuarts through the powerful Wynn family at Gwydir Castle in North Wales, one of the best time capsules from that era. The story of the Wynn family reflects the turbulent history of this Stuart era. They had close connections with this new royal house and their status would rise and fall with the successes and failures of Stuart rule.

Hosted by Professor Kate Williams

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The Brighton Trunk Murders | Murder Maps | Reel Truth History Documentaries

The Brighton Trunk Murders | Murder Maps | Reel Truth History Documentaries

Hear how grim discoveries made in Brighton train station and King’s Cross in the summer of 1934 sparked a huge police probe – and took a surprise turn.

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Welcome to Reel Truth History, the home of gripping and powerful documentaries. Here you can watch both full length documentaries and series that explore some of the most comprehensive pieces of world history.

How The Romans Would See Us Today

How The Romans Would See Us Today

A time portal has just opened, from which 6 of Rome’s greatest leaders have stepped into our world. What would they think of us? How do our civilizations compare?

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A Cyberattack Doesn’t Have to Sink Your Stock Price

Executive Summary

Getting hacked is more a question of when than if. But while hacks can be a PR nightmare — and one that rapidly erodes consumer confidence and sinks stock price — they don’t have to be: Cyberattacks are also an opportunity for companies to show transparency, trustworthiness, and to highlight the steps they’ve taken to defend against attacks and the ones they’re investing in. A review of how companies responded to cyberattacks, and how their stock prices fared, produced two recommendations: 1) Lead with what you did right to prepare for this eventuality, and 2) then pivot to how you’re going to improve even more. The best case outcome is to reduce, or even eliminate, the cyber-incident’s short-term negative impact, such as on stock price, through a systematic response strategy and proactive customer attitude, and turning the experience into a trigger for expanded organizational learning to create positive long-term impact and digital innovation.

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Over 60% of the Fortune 1000 had at least one public data breach over the last decade, according to a Cyentia Institute research report. On an annual basis, it is estimated that one in four Fortune 1000 firms will suffer a cyber loss event. There is an estimated cyber attack every 39 seconds. As is often stated, “it is not a matter of if, but when you will suffer a cyber attack.” Are you prepared?

A hack can sink a company’s stock price and leave investors fuming. In the wake of the Capital One hack, which was publicly reported in July 2019, the company’s stock price dropped nearly 6% immediately in after-hours trading, losing a total of 13.89% over two weeks. Likewise, following the announcement of the Equifax breach back in early September of 2017, the company saw a similar negative reaction from the stock market with its stock price plunging from $142.72 to $92.98 in just one week. What is worse, its market share dropped significantly in 2017 and has struggled to recover ever since.

Getting hacked doesn’t have to be a disaster, however. The JP Morgan Chase breach in 2014, for instance, didn’t impact its stock growth negatively, in fact, its stock actually rose slightly. These counterintuitive outcomes indicate that many factors determine the fallout from data breach incidents. They also show that there are steps a company can take to not only mitigate reputational damage, but sometimes even end up improving their position. Our research and review of more than 14 published studies revealed that the consequences of a data breach incident may differ depending on the industry, firm size, the type of information exposed, and the response strategy. Here we will focus on the firm’s response strategy, the area that the company has the most control over.

How to Respond When You’re Hacked

Let’s start with what not to do. First off, don’t try to hide that it happened. Strategies such as hiding the existence of the incident or finding excuses to minimize the organization’s responsibility can result in even worse consequences. One example is when Uber paid hackers through its bug bounty program to cover up a data breach incident in 2016. When the incident was publicly disclosed in 2017, it resulted in significant damage to Uber’s reputation, and a $148 million fine from the Federal Trade Commission in 2018. And while many companies trot out the CEO to say “I am deeply sorry for what has happened” or fire the chief security officer, neither acts will likely be much help.

So what should you do? There are two key pieces of advice: 1) Lead with what you did right to prepare for this eventuality, and 2) then pivot to how you’re going to improve even more. 

Lead with the cybersecurity measures already in place. Our analysis shows that both customers and the stock market are reassured by a CEO who immediately and effectively communicates about the cybersecurity mechanisms the company already has in place. Broadcasting that a serious investment was made before a hack shows that the company took security, and especially the privacy of its customers, seriously. Even if these measures didn’t ultimately thwart the attack, discussing them up can mitigate some of the damage: data encryption can guarantee confidentiality, a backup system can help to speed up recover, and network segmentation can isolate the incident to reduce the magnitude of the impact. If you’re reading this and you haven’t been hacked yet, now would be a good time to double check security measures like these.

Pivot to planned improvements. Immediately after the breach, remedial actions should be taken and publicized, such as announcing a big increase in budget to further improve corporate cybersecurity capability. Hiring more cybersecurity professionals to enhance internal cybersecurity capabilities can also contribute to maintaining customers’ trust. For example, after the JP Morgan Chase breach, the company released extensive information on the attack and doubled its investment in security.

On top of internal improvements, it is wise to publicly offer all customers a monitoring service, such as LifeLock, to help avoid any potential abuse of their data, such as identity theft. Doing so — and advertising that you’re doing it — makes clear that customers are in good hands and are going to be taken care of. Together, these post-breach recovery strategies helped organizations to reduce or eliminate short-term negative stock price drop, according to our analysis.

Prepare Now

These immediate and well-planned responses are critical to restoring confidence. But even though you may not always be able to prevent a cyberattack, you can prepare for it. All too often we have seen CEOs immediately make statements to the press — only to backtrack within hours or days — making it seem like the company does not know what it is doing. Of course, this seriously reduces confidence in the company.

Our research affirmed the importance of cyberattack fire drills to address this. These involve having top management, often including the board, participate in a simulated cyberattack to develop and practice response procedures and communications strategies. We have run several such fire drills with companies: We introduce a series of events — sometimes as video clips as might be reported on the news — and have the executives respond to each event, after which we assess what worked well, what did not, and what additional training and preparation is needed before a real event occurs. If your company is not already practicing cyberattack fire drills, it should do so as fast as possible.

Importantly, a cyberattack is a crisis, but it can also be an opportunity. Leaders should recall Winston Churchill’s guidance, “never waste a good crisis.” While a cyberattack brings the targeted company into the spotlight, it also provides free publicity for the company to showcase their responsibility and efforts to protect stakeholders, customers, suppliers, and the community. That is why a well-rehearsed action plan and communication strategy is so important. Instead of blaming the cybersecurity team or gullible employees, organizations should turn those incidents into opportunities to improve and optimize their business by increasing transparency, enhancing cybersecurity maturity, and improving competitive position.

The best case outcome is to reduce, or even eliminate, the cyber-incident’s short-term negative impact (such as on stock price) through a systematic response strategy and proactive customer attitude. Then turn the experience into a trigger for expanded organizational learning to create positive long-term impact and digital innovation. This should be the mission for every organizational leader. If all these things are done, and done well, the company can emerge better, stronger, and smarter.

Acknowledgement: This research was supported, in part, by funds from the members of the Cybersecurity at MIT Sloan (CAMS) consortium.

The Call of “Not Knowing”– How Uncertainty is Still the Test of Leadership

Guest post by Randall P. White:

American leaders are rising to the occasion.

You just have to look a little deeper. There have been great examples of leadership in our multiple crises of the moment.

Mayors, governors, even some sheriffs and police officers, are showing how it’s done. People who are otherwise obscure on the national scene are now showing up in news feeds and quenching a yearning for sanity, direction and confidence.

Such as? Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms of Atlanta relating to us as a parent and an executive, saying enough is enough and here are things we’re doing about it. Sheriff Chris Swanson in Michigan who “protected and served” protesters, by joining their march. Dr. Anthony Fauci laying out both what he knows and what he doesn’t know. Even without a definitive answer, we know he has a process based on data and rationality with a goal of public safety and avoiding death.

In all of this, it’s not about being a better person. It’s about knowing how to be a conduit for solutions—and creating a safe space to listen to ideas and try the best one’s out—searching for viable solutions in an uncertain world.

Crisis leadership is a crucible and it’s natural for us to be inspired by what it can produce.

We are seeing that leadership is a calling and it’s often more geeky than macho and certainly not authoritarian. Well-developed leaders are piqued by “not knowing” and motivated by the challenge to find out. They enjoy learning and they don’t mind mistakes as long as the mistakes are the kind where we learn and grow and ultimately leapfrog us forward to a viable solution.

Then there are leaders who really are geeks: Bill Gates, Jack Dorsey and Elon Musk. They’re lucky to have more of a sandbox than a crucible. Gates, Dorsey and Musk are like brainy action figures of leadership. Fascinating and fun to watch. Who doesn’t like seeing a reusable rocket back its way down to a landing pad for the first time?

Yet, Bottoms, Fauci and Swanson are a little more compelling right now, by being less preordained. Not nationally known. Less expected. And more attainable examples of leaders. Each rose to the occasion. Each has to rally followership—but they are believable and approachable and so, they are relatable in how they approach seemingly impossible situations in an ever-increasing complex environment of crisis atop crisis.

Real leaders, regardless how they come packaged–gender, ethnicity, nationality– aren’t afraid of what they don’t know. They run toward the danger and the unknown so that their people are energized to solve important problems, whether it’s racism in a police department or landing a first stage rocket on a stationary platform at sea. Each is very difficult.

They’re the people who come forward in a crisis that grab our imagination, like Churchill or Franklin Delano Roosevelt rose to their wholly unknown occasions during World War II.

In contrast to the current president they are not caught up in themselves. They show up for the followers, knowing that they have a calling to represent the best of the followers and to help them be successful by creating a space where they can try their best to solve the problems at hand.

So we see in our tumult that leaders are okay with being uncertain. That’s what they signed on for. Leadership has always been about bringing people through “not knowing.”

Not knowing we’d be where we ended up six months later, I wrote a new chapter to Relax, It’s Only Uncertainty in September thinking it was time to re-release the title, after 19 years.

My now-retired colleague Philip Hodgson and I authored Relax as a field guide for leadership–the culmination of a decade studying how people manage ambiguity and its attendant uncertainty. This work also resulted in The Ambiguity Architect, a 360 to assess a person’s ability to tolerate or master uncertainty. The instrument has consistently suggested that high performers do well on this scale. And our experience suggests that dealing with uncertainty successfully can be learned and improved.

The basic lessons of Relax, first published as Y2K faded into the rear-view mirror, remain relevant and are taught in global business schools’ leadership curriculum.

They’re also demonstrated by our public sector rising stars.

With Covid-19 and mass civil disobedience we see leaders calling on traits like “being motivated by mysteries,” future scanning, simplifying and enthusiasm (to name half of the book’s eight Enablers for managing uncertainty).

We can observe this in new leaders to the fore like Bottoms, Fauci, and Swanson. They break complex, nuanced and sometimes abstract situations into simple statements we all can share: citizens don’t trust authority, we can’t overwhelm our health care system, and the chaos needs to stop for everyone. 

As a business professor, I have to ask how can business leaders learn as we watch these ascending leaders in society? Chaos, ambiguity and uncertainty bring opportunity for good leaders to not only emerge, but also invent new solutions, new competitive advantages. And a better workplace, in which learning is constant, inclusion is an advantage and imagination is allowed to thrive.

Randall P. White, PhD., is a social psychologist, executive coach and managing partner of the Executive Development Group. He is Co-head of Leadership at HEC Paris and author of Relax, It’s Only Uncertainty.