¿Por qué las videollamadas agotan tu energía? – EL INFORMADOR

Desde que se impusieron las restricciones de aislamiento tras la propagación del COVID-19 en el mundo, las escuelas, las empresas y hasta las relaciones sociales se han mudado en su gran mayoría a las videollamadas en aplicaciones como Zoom, Facebook, WhatsApp, Hangouts y Jitsi, entre otros, lo que ha provocado que algunos usuarios se sientan fatigados sin saber cuál es la razón.

“La mayoría de nuestros roles sociales ocurren en diferentes lugares, pero ahora el contexto se ha derrumbado”

De acuerdo con Gianpiero Petriglieri, profesor asociado al comportamiento organizacional de Insead, estar en una videollamada requiere más atención que un charla cara a cara. 

“Los chats de video significan que debemos trabajar más para procesar las señales no verbales como las expresiones faciales, tono de voz y el lenguaje corporal”, dijo Petriglieri a la BBC.

Explicó que a estas se les suma la ansiedad y la incomodidad por el silencio que surge mientras se está conectado. “Nuestras mentes están juntas cuando nuestros cuerpos sienten que no lo estamos. Esa disonancia, que hace que las personas tengan sentimientos encontrados, es agotadora”.

Otro factor adicional, según Gianpiero, es la consciencia de que nos están mirando a través de la cámara, similar a cuando se está en el escenario y eres el centro de atención sintiendo la presión social y “la sensación de que necesitas actuar”, además de que se está en el hogar, donde puede que el individuo actúe de una manera distinta a como lo hace cuando se está con amigos, tal como lo menciona la teoría de la autocomplejidad.

“La mayoría de nuestros roles sociales ocurren en diferentes lugares, pero ahora el contexto se ha derrumbado (…) Estamos confinados en nuestro propio espacio, en el contexto de una crisis que provoca mucha ansiedad, y nuestro único espacio para la interacción es una ventana de computadora”, dijo.

Para evitar estas “fatigas virtuales”, Gianpiero recomendó limitar las videollamadas a las que sean necesarias y que el encender las cámaras durante la transmisión debe ser opcional, al menos no en todas las reuniones. Otras opciones son dejar lapsos de tiempo entre una videollamada y otra; así se evitará la sobrecarga de información.

AC

Coronavirus

Creating Jobs and Workspaces That Energize People

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2. E.O. Wilson, “Biophilia” (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1984).

3. R.M. Ryan, N. Weinstein, J. Bernstein, et al., “Vitalizing Effects of Being Outdoors and in Nature,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 30, no. 2 (June 2010): 159-168; F. Beute and Y.A.W. de Kort, “Natural Resistance: Exposure to Nature and Self-Regulation, Mood, and Physiology After Ego-Depletion,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 40 (December 2014): 167-178; M.G. Berman, J. Jonides, and S. Kaplan, “The Cognitive Benefits of Interacting With Nature,” Psychological Science 19, no. 12 (December 2008): 1207-1212; and J.W. Zhang, P.K. Piff, R. Iyer, et al., “An Occasion for Unselfing: Beautiful Nature Leads to Prosociality,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 37 (March 2014): 61-72.

4. T. Hartig, R. Mitchell, S. de Vries, et al., “Nature and Health,” Annual Review of Public Health 35 (March 2014): 207-228; D.F. Shanahan, R. Bush, K.J. Gaston, et al., “Health Benefits From Nature Experiences Depend on Dose,” Scientific Reports 6 (June 2016); and F.E. Kuo and W.C. Sullivan, “Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime?” Environment and Behavior 33, no. 3 (May 2001): 343-367.

5. A.C. Klotz and M.C. Bolino, “Bringing the Great Outdoors Into the Workplace: The Energizing Effect of Biophilic Work Design,” Academy of Management Review, forthcoming.

6. E. Seppälä and J. Berlin, “Why You Should Tell Your Team to Take a Break and Go Outside,” Harvard Business Review, June 26, 2017, www.hbr.org.

7. “Clif Bar Celebrates Opening of Its One-of-a-Kind Sustainable Bakery,” Clif Bar, Aug. 30, 2016.

8. K.J. Ryan, “The Designer of Apple’s New Headquarters Explains How He Brought Steve Jobs’s Vision to Life,” Inc., June 8, 2017, www.inc.com.

9. A. Thompson and V. Bruk-Lee, “Naturally! Examining Nature’s Role in Workplace Strain Reduction,” Occupational Health Science 3, no. 1 (March 2019): 23-43.

10. J.T. Chow and S. Lau, “Nature Gives Us Strength: Exposure to Nature Counteracts Ego-Depletion,” Journal of Social Psychology 155, no. 1 (October 2014): 70-85.

11. R.K. Raanaas, K.H. Evensen, D. Rich, et al., “Benefits of Indoor Plants on Attention Capacity in an Office Setting,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 31, no. 1 (March 2011): 99-105.

12. T.R. Herzog, P. Maguire, and M.B. Nebel, “Assessing the Restorative Components of Environments,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 23, no. 2 (June 2003): 159-170.

13. J. Kühnel and S. Sonnentag, “How Long Do You Benefit From Vacation? A Closer Look at the Fade-Out of Vacation Effects,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 32, no. 1 (January 2011): 125-143.

14. N. Weinstein, A.K. Przybylski, and R.M. Ryan, “Can Nature Make Us More Caring? Effects of Immersion in Nature on Intrinsic Aspirations and Generosity,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 35, no. 10 (October 2009): 1315-1329; and J.M. Zelenski, R.L. Dopko, and C.A. Capaldi, “Cooperation Is in Our Nature: Nature Exposure May Promote Cooperative and Environmentally Sustainable Behavior,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 42 (June 2015): 24-31.

15. F.S. Mayer and C.M. Frantz, “The Connectedness to Nature Scale: A Measure of Individuals’ Feeling in Community With Nature,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 24, no. 4 (December 2004): 503-515.

16. D. Haluza, R. Schönbauer, and R. Cervinka, “Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, no. 5 (May 2014): 5445-5461.

17. E.K. Nisbet, J.M. Zelenski, and S.A. Murphy, “Happiness Is in Our Nature: Exploring Nature Relatedness as a Contributor to Subjective Well-Being,” Journal of Happiness Studies 12, no. 2 (April 2011): 303-322.

Prepare to Protect Your Customers’ Voices

Topics

Digital Resilience

Today, leaders across all business units must be able to answer a critical question: How secure are we? This series examines how managers can build digital resilience to compete in the new digital economy, where companies need to protect against not only cyberattacks, but also technical debt and digital weak points within their infrastructure and teams.

See All Articles in This Series


The threat of voice-based cybercrime is growing along with the explosion of voice-directed digital assistants, billions of which are already embedded in our mobile phones, computers, cars, and homes. Digital assistants are always listening, creating a significant security risk, especially as millions of people work from home during the pandemic. It’s estimated that in the next two years, there will be more virtual digital assistants than people in the world. Nearly two-thirds of businesses plan to use voice assistants for their customer interactions, according to a 2018 survey conducted by Pindrop Security.

Already, the number of cyberattacks on voice-recognition systems is rising as people converse with bots to play music, pay their bills, book reservations at restaurants, and perform other everyday tasks. It now takes less than four seconds of original audio to create a deepfake of someone’s voice. Recently, hackers used machine learning software to impersonate a CEO and order subordinates to wire hundreds of thousands of dollars to a fraudulent account.

Much of today’s voice fraud, known as “vishing,” involves controlling voice assistants by methods such as embedding undetectable audio commands, replaying voice recordings, and modifying fraudsters’ voices to match the pitch of their victims’ voices. As hackers become better at impersonating people, they will be able to apply deepfakes of voices that will be far harder to detect.

The damage could be catastrophic unless companies take appropriate cybersecurity precautions. Financial services companies send millions of customers new credit cards after criminals steal information, but they can’t send them new voices. Unless voice activation is made secure, the rapid growth of machines that recognize voice commands could grind to a halt, damaging customers’ trust in the privacy safeguards of the many companies that use voice systems.

Pindrop’s survey found that 80% of businesses worldwide considered the security of their voice-directed services to be a concern. So how can managers make their customers’ voices safe?

As a first principle, companies should roll out voice-directed services only when they are confident of their ability to mitigate the accompanying cybersecurity risks. For example, at first, financial companies may want to offer customers only the ability to check basic facts by voice — such as account balances and stock quotes — and have them continue to use manual means or biometrics like the person’s face or fingerprint to execute transactions.

As the range of voice-activated services extends and becomes more sophisticated, here are some other measures businesses can take.

Strengthen Customer Authentications

Companies should introduce screening protocols for voice-controlled services that are at least as robust as those used for other digital services. Customers should receive alerts if their orders exceed a certain threshold or appear to deviate from their typical purchasing patterns.

Companies can increase awareness of potential scams by distributing checklists to help customers gauge whether a third party’s approach or a request for information could be fraudulent. For example, a company could advise customers to hang up if a caller doesn’t know their name and relationship to the company, or if the caller’s phone number seems suspicious. Recently, scammers have been tricking people into giving away sensitive information when they use voice searches to find customer service numbers. Customers should also be made aware of the extent to which they are insured against fraud whenever a company launches a new voice-directed service.

At the same time, voice-directed services should ask for additional forms of authentication. These could consist of biometrics such as a customer’s fingerprint or face. Or they could be qualitative verbal authentications that can’t be found in the public domain — personal preferences, for instance, or the relative a customer visited with most often as a child, or both.

Companies will also have to invest in filtering technologies that detect whether a voice is real or synthesized as they become available. Some companies are already trying out technologies that can detect clues that human hearing normally misses, such as the sound of breathing, which may be present in a genuine voice but absent in a synthesized impersonation. Systems are also being designed to block inaudible commands by identifying and canceling ultrasonic signals, which researchers have found can take control of voice-recognition systems.

Conduct Cyber Exercises

Hackers will continue to develop new methods to exploit the weakest links in systems. Companies offering voice-activated services need to test their security constantly, conducting cyber exercises that identify vulnerabilities to determine ways to plug the gaps. They should also prepare responses to deploy in the event of a successful cyberattack.

As a training exercise, some of a company’s cybersecurity experts could try to exploit a voice assistant’s security gaps while others guard against the attackers. Alternatively, companies could engage ethical hackers to conduct surprise attacks on voice-assistant services — either on their own or in collaboration with other businesses or industries. The defense and payment industries already hold cross-industry cyber war games of this kind.

Cybersecurity teams should simultaneously explore alternate ways of operating should a voice-related cyber crisis arise. Experts should puzzle out in advance how to react to scenarios by considering a series of questions: If withdrawals are suddenly made from a bank using deepfaked customer voices, how should it react? How would it detect an attack in the first place? And what alternatives should be made available in the event of an emergency?

Communicate Across Industry

Today, regulations exist for voice-directed services. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act limits the sale and mining of consumer voice data collected through smart televisions. Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation requires companies to report personal data breaches to their relevant local regulatory authority, though it does not currently address voice compromises directly.

Whatever the rules, cybersecurity officers should maintain regular contact with governments and others in their industries in order to stay ahead of regulations and potential new threats. Voice operations — and the convenience and efficiency they bring — will only spread so long as the companies offering them show that they can safeguard customers’ voices.

Companies should establish forums and other methods to share data about voice-assistant breaches so that whole industries can stay ahead of their adversaries. Once voice assistants become a common method for transferring money, new security protocols may also be needed.

The Potential of the Conversational Economy

If voice-directed services were made secure, they could deliver services that would improve — and possibly transform — consumers’ daily lives. People could tell cars to take them to appointments. They could turn to mobile phones to arrange their vacations. One day, they might even ask virtual assistants for financial advice.

But delivering this conversational future will require cybersecurity to stay ahead of hackers’ ability to abuse voice systems. Businesses should prioritize exploring now what it will take to keep their customers’ voices safe — and prepare to continue the battle indefinitely.

Topics

Digital Resilience

Today, leaders across all business units must be able to answer a critical question: How secure are we? This series examines how managers can build digital resilience to compete in the new digital economy, where companies need to protect against not only cyberattacks, but also technical debt and digital weak points within their infrastructure and teams.

See All Articles in This Series

Trump could withdraw US spy planes and agents from the UK if Boris Johnson pushes ahead with Huawei 5G deal

  • The White House is reviewing the US security relationship with the UK.
  • The US is looking at all of its military and intelligence asset in Britain, The Telegraph newspaper reported.
  • The White House has launched the review amid concern over Boris Johnson’s decision to let Chinese telecomms firm Huawei develop the UK’s 5g network
  • Prime Minister Johnson went ahead with the deal despite US warning that it would make intelligence more vulnerable to China.
  • The review could lead to US aircraft, military personnel, and even spies being withdrawn from the UK.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

The White House is reportedly conducting a wide-ranging review into the US security relationship with the UK due to concern over Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s decision to let Huawei develop Britain’s 5G network.

The review is looking at all US security and intelligence assets based in the UK, and could lead to US aircraft and spies being withdrawn from Britain, half a dozen US and UK sources have told The Telegraph newspaper.

Johnson angered the Trump administration in January by granting Chinese telecoms firm Huawei a limited role in developing the UK’s 5G network, despite US warnings about potential security risks.

The disagreement between Washington and London culminated in early February, with President Trump hanging up on Prime Minister Johnson during an “apoplectic” phone call.

Now the US is reportedly holding a major review into whether it should scale back its security and intelligence presence in the UK, with potentially huge ramifications for the UK-UK “special relationship.”

A former US official who up until recently was on the White House’s National Security Council, told The Telegraph it was “likely” that intelligence assets would be withdrawn.

“This was not a bluff. You cannot mitigate the danger Boris Johnson is exposing the UK to by letting Huawei into the network,” the source said.

Lees ook op Business Insider

“This review is not a punishment. This is the White House saying ‘okay if they’re going to go down this path and put themselves at risk then how do we protect ourselves’.”

Included in the review are US RC-135s aircraft currently based at a base in Suffolk, southeast England, the Telegraph report suggests, due to the intelligence-gathering technology the planes possesses. The status of more than 10,000 US personnel based in the UK and barracks used to store military vehicles, is also being looked at by US officials.

The White House is also looking at whether it is safe to allow its secret agents to continue operating in Britain, as it is concerned that their mobile phones and other devices could be infiltrated.

Johnson is under growing pressure to scrap the Huawei deal

FILE PHOTO: The Huawei logo is pictured at the IFA consumer tech fair in Berlin, Germany, September 6, 2019. REUTERS/Hannibal Hanschke

Foto: Source: Reuters

This development will pile more pressure on Prime Minister Johnson to reverse his decision to let Huawei develop parts of the UK’s 5G network.

Business Insider reported last month that a growing number of MPs in Johnson’s Conservative party wanted him to scrap the deal amid fury over how China had handled the coronavirus pandemic.

Tom Tugendhat MP, who last month with other Conservative MPs launched the China Research Group, told Business Insider: “This really makes clear something that many of us have been clear about for a long time.

“China is playing a strategic game in trying to make us choose between our economic future and our strategic partnerships. This is not a decision that we can afford to get wrong.”

Conservative MP Neil O’Brien, the China Research Group’s secretary, said the White House review meant that Johnson’s government would have to choose whether it wanted to work with the US or China.

“As the US and China compete and decouple, allies and businesses will be pressed to choose which they want to work with,” he told Business Insider.

“There is a lot of bipartisan legislation coming through in the US aimed at securing its economy against the Chinese government, which will also have side effects for third countries like the U.K. and EU.

“There are going to be lots of tricky choices coming up for the rest of the west.”

The news also comes on the day that UK and US negotiators begin negotiations over a new free trade deal.

Negotiators will hold an opening round of talks over video conference on Tuesday. The UK is being led by senior UK official Oliver Griffiths, while the US negotiating team is being led by assistant trade representative, Daniel Mullaney.

Johnson’s government has framed a free trade agreement with the Trump administration as a major prize for the UK after leaving the European Union.

COVID-19 Through The Lens Of My Experience With The HIV/AIDS Pandemic | Trudy Larson | TEDxReno

COVID-19 Through The Lens Of My Experience With The HIV/AIDS Pandemic  | Trudy Larson | TEDxReno

In the fall of 1981, Dr. Trudy Larson an Infectious Disease Fellow at UCLA on the frontline as the HIV/AIDS pandemic started in the United States. In this talk recorded on June 15, 2020, Dr. Larson discusses how the lessons she learned from that pandemic inform her perspective of the COVID-19 pandemic. Dr. Larson reminds us that while we don’t know everything, we do know some very important things about how to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Dr. Trudy Larson is Professor and founding Dean of the School of Community Health Sciences at the University of Nevada, Reno. Her primary areas of interest have been HIV/AIDS and immunizations. Dr. Larson is past chair of the Nevada Donor Network Board, oversees the Organ and Tissue Donor program at the UNR School of Medicine, is a board member at Northern Nevada HOPES, is active on the Nevada Public Health Foundation board and currently serves on the Governor’s Medical Advisory Team for COVID-19. Dr. Larson received her medical degree from the University of California, Irvine. She completed a Pediatric residency at the University of California Davis Medical Center followed by a fellowship in pediatric infectious disease at UCLA and has been at the University of Nevada, Reno since 1984. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx