¿Qué es una dictadura? – El Orden Mundial (EOM)

La dictadura es un sistema político donde el poder se reduce a las manos de unas pocas personas y que no sigue los principios democráticos. No obstante, puede haberlas de muchos tipos, independientemente de la ideología.

La dictadura es un sistema de gobierno donde el poder se concentra en una persona o un grupo de personas que no están sometidas a las leyes, el control y separación de poderes características de una democracia. Además, las dictaduras se caracterizan por una falta de pluralismo político y por vulnerar, mediante el control autoritario de la sociedad, los derechos y libertades civiles de la población.

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No obstante, “dictadura” es un término lo suficientemente amplio como para que quepan en él sistemas políticos tan diferentes como el de Corea del Norte, la Alemania nazi, la España franquista o la actual Arabia Saudí. Esto genera controversias y diferentes categorizaciones: dictaduras personalistas o de partido; dictaduras fascistas o comunistas, en función a su ideología; dictaduras militares, civiles, familiares, monárquicas… Y también dictaduras autoritarias o totalitarias, según su grado de control sobre la población. 

Curiosamente, en su origen el término tenía unas implicaciones muy distintas. Surgió en la antigua Roma, en el período de la República (509 a.C.-27 a.C.), durante el cual la dictadura era un cargo público que el Senado concedía a un individuo en situaciones de crisis. El dictador debía ser una persona capacitada a quien se le otorgaban poderes especiales para gestionar una guerra o una crisis económica, pero siempre ostentaba el cargo de manera temporal y estaba sometido a las decisiones del Senado. Sin embargo, el militar Julio César logró ser nombrado dictador perpetuo por el Senado romano tras ganar una guerra civil. César ocupó el cargo dos años hasta su asesinato en el 44 a.C., acaparando el poder y sin responder ante las leyes de la República. Este recuerdo es el que marca la diferencia entre el significado original del término como cargo público y su concepción moderna como tirano.

Desde entonces, el término de dictadura se ha empleado para denominar a los llamados “caudillismos” de América Latina de finales del siglo XIX, como los del mexicano Antonio López de Santa Anna o el argentino Juan Manuel de Rosas. También a los regímenes europeos de principios del siglo XX, como el fascismo del italiano Benito Mussolini o la dictadura militar de Miguel Primo de Rivera en España. Todos ellos asentaron la idea de dictadura aplicada a los regímenes “monocráticos” (del griego, ‘el poder de uno’) modernos, pero que nada tenían que ver con las monarquías absolutistas del Antiguo Régimen. En cualquier caso, el siglo XX vio el surgimiento de regímenes dictatoriales muy diversos, como el de Pinochet en Chile, militar y derechista; la monarquía absoluta y teocrática saudí; la dictadura comunista de partido de la República Popular China; o el régimen personalista nazi de Adolf Hitler. 

Pese a la sencillez que pueda aparentar, una de las fórmulas más habituales de identificar una dictadura es contraponerla a una democracia. Una democracia se caracteriza por la pluralidad de partidos, la defensa de libertades individuales, la división de poderes o la elección de los gobernantes mediante la participación ciudadana activa y competitiva. Por el contrario, una dictadura suele poseer los rasgos diametralmente opuestos, aunque ciertas dictaduras también pueden tener rasgos aparentemente democráticos, como la existencia de otros partidos —minoritarios y sin capacidad de llegar al poder— o la celebración de elecciones fraudulentas.

El estado de la democracia en el mundo

Este criterio es el que utiliza el Índice de Democracia anual de la revista The Economist, que sitúa a todos los países del mundo en un eje en el que la dictadura y la democracia son los extremos, pero con cuatro categorías según su grado de democratización: democracias plenas, democracias imperfectas, regímenes híbridos y regímenes autoritarios. Según este Índice, algunos de los países que se incluyen en la última categoría, los menos democráticos del mundo, son Corea del Norte, Arabia Saudí, China o Irán. En el extremo opuesto, entre los más democráticos, están Noruega, Suecia, Islandia o Nueva Zelanda.

En EOM explica respondemos a las preguntas que nuestros lectores nos hacen. Queremos seguir fomentando la divulgación internacional y ayudaros a comprender un poco mejor cómo funciona el mundo. Si tienes alguna pregunta sobre temas internacionales no dudes en mandárnosla a través de este formulario.

Schumer on peaceful transfer of power: “Trump is not a dictator” – Axios

Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) on Wednesday responded to President Trump’s refusal to commit to a peaceful transition of power should he lose the November election, telling CNN that Trump “is not a dictator, and the American people will not allow him to be one.”

What he’s saying: “The American people are wedded to democracy,” Schumer said. “We believe in democracy, and the kind of thing Trump is talking about just will not happen.” 

  • “One way or another, there’ll be a peaceful transition of power, and President Trump will not get his wish.”
  • “One thing I’d say to the American people: Vote, vote early and the best way to prevent Donald Trump from messing around with the election is defeat him in a landslide, and that’s what I hope will happen. It certainly should given the kinds of things he said.”

The big picture: Trump has baselessly claimed on a number of occasions that the only way he will lose the election is if it’s “rigged,” claiming — without evidence — that mail-in ballots will result in widespread fraud.

Playbook for a New Leader’s First 90 Days on the Job

Guest post from Kristin Harper:


The first 90 days of a leaders’ tenure set the foundation for their future success. Below are five time-tested approaches for new leaders to get off to a fast start.  I’ve written about these and other crucial tools for helping leaders improve relationships, gain executive presence and succeed in my new book, The Heart of a Leader: 52 Emotional Intelligence Insights to Advance Your Career.

1) Focus on Learning and Listening

Prior to starting a new role, read as much as you can, for as far back as you can about the business, strategy, plans, performance, people, opportunities, and challenges. Meet with your predecessor and other stakeholders to ask questions that seek to understand and not judge. Forming conclusions and making decisions too early in your role can be disastrous. Marry your independent research with insightful conversations to accelerate your on-boarding and business mastery.

During your first 90 days, absorb as much information and insight as possible. Besides periodic questions aimed at deepening your understanding of the organization, business, people, and processes, most of your time should be spent listening. Capture your hypotheses, ideas, and observations in a journal. As you meet more people and learn about the business, validate or invalidate your hypotheses, which will become the basis of your future vision, strategies, and/or operational plans.

2) Establish Yourself as both a Person and Leader

Change of any magnitude naturally causes anxiety. Ease your new team’s worries by hosting a Day 1 meeting. This is your first opportunity to establish your personal brand. Demonstrate self-awareness and authenticity by sharing the following content, which will help build trust, establish expectations, and accelerate relationship development with your new colleagues:

A summary of who you are as a person and leader, what you believe, how those values and beliefs guide your actions, and how you operate

– Why you accepted this role

– What you are committed to for the team, business, organization, and culture

– Address questions and concerns

– Team introductions plus an interesting fact or icebreaker

– Paint a picture of the next few weeks

– Close with your optimism about working with this team

– Consider telling stories, which demonstrate vulnerability, emotional intelligence, and can help create connections that translate to a more motivated team.

3) Build Multiple Relationships

Within your first week on the job, host 1-hour on-boarding meetings with each of your direct reports. Within the first two months, host a 30-minute 1:1 meeting with team members across multiple levels in your organization plus cross-functional colleagues. In preparation for these meetings, review the organizational chart, form a cursory understanding of their roles and projects, and read their last performance review and résumé, if they’re on your team.

Onboarding meetings are one of few meetings without much two-way dialogue. Send the following questions as a preview, then listen and take notes as they share:

Tell me about your background.

2) What motivates you?

3) What are your professional goals?

4) What should we Start/Stop/Continue?

Be cautious not to rush to judgment about talent during 1:1 onboarding meetings. Give yourself 60-90 days to determine if you have the right mix of talent to achieve the goals and objectives.

4) Stay Connected

Engage with your team through impromptu conversations, team meetings with direct reports, 1:1s with direct reports, all-team meetings, annual skip-level meetings, quarterly development conversations and end-of-year performance reviews. Monthly all-team meetings help build camaraderie, and provide a forum for recognition, to discuss business performance and key projects. These meetings also provide an opportunity for your team to demonstrate their talent, and for you to demonstrate inspirational leadership.

5) Reflect and Envision

After 90 days, reflect on what you’ve learned, key observations, and early wins. Share this information with your manager as a head start to your performance review. Reflect on what changes could make the biggest differences in the outcomes, performance, and culture of the business and team. Then develop your vision, objectives, strategies, goals, measures, action plan, and solicit feedback from your direct reports, wise council, cross-functional colleagues, and manager.

Once you’ve secured buy-in, cascade the vision and measurable goals throughout the team. Be cautious about change fatigue. Changing too much at once could overwhelm your team, dilute the impact, and put them on the defense if not done thoughtfully.

Creating a culture of trust, open communication, accountability, recognition, and commitment to a common vision is the #1 job of a leader. These strategies and tactics will help you engage your team, develop healthy relationships, and build a healthy culture that delivers stronger results. 

Kristin Harper is CEO of Driven to Succeed, LLC, a leadership development company that provides brand strategy consulting, market research, and keynote speaking on leadership and emotional intelligence. She is also author of The Heart of a Leader: 52 Emotional Intelligence Insights to Advance Your Career. www.DriventoSucceedLLC.com.

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