KING CHARLES II | The Stuarts: A Bloody Reign | Episode 1 | Reel Truth History Documentaries

KING CHARLES II | The Stuarts: A Bloody Reign | Episode 1 | Reel Truth History Documentaries

Four kings from the House of Stuart sat on the English throne from 1603 to 1688. It was a time of great religious struggle and political instability. The Gunpowder Plot nearly wiped out King James I. The Thirty Years War broke out on the continent. A civil war erupted which led to the public beheading of King Charles I and the birth of a commonwealth headed by Oliver Cromwell. London was ravaged by the plague and the Great Fire of London.

Throughout this series we look at the reign of the Stuarts through the powerful Wynn family at Gwydir Castle in North Wales, one of the best time capsules from that era. The story of the Wynn family reflects the turbulent history of this Stuart era. They had close connections with this new royal house and their status would rise and fall with the successes and failures of Stuart rule.

Hosted by Professor Kate Williams

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How The Romans Would See Us Today

How The Romans Would See Us Today

A time portal has just opened, from which 6 of Rome’s greatest leaders have stepped into our world. What would they think of us? How do our civilizations compare?

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Employee Motivation—and Celebration – American Laundry News

Commercial Laundry: David Griggs, Superior Linen Service, Muskogee, Okla.

Piece work is a tedious job whether it is performed in a laundry or on an assembly line of an automotive factory. Keeping workers engaged in these jobs is a challenge for all industries.

Fortunately, since this is an issue that faces so many industries, there are many resources available that can help you decide the best method to implement in your plant.

It all starts with tracking and giving feedback to your employees. If an employee does not know what is expected from them, they cannot maintain any type of motivation to improve. Trying to tap into an employee’s internal pride is the basis for production improvement. Some employees need very little motivation, while others require more effort.

Once you have established your expectations and tracking methods, then there are several methods that you can use to keep employees engaged in the job, following are a couple that we have used over the years:

1. Bonus for reaching numbers. There is no doubt that giving bonuses for achieving high production numbers is very effective.

On the surface, this seems to be the easiest form of increasing production and rewarding employees who get their numbers. It does require a solid tracking method and strict rules on how the bonus is paid.

Piece numbers are easy to get, it is the tracking of any machine downtime, either from equipment breakdowns or lack of product, that can tie up a supervisor’s time and can lead to unethical bonus pay outs.

There are quite of few solid tracking systems out there that can help you monitor this. We put our electronic system in because of the unethical numbers we would get when we made all calculations by hand. The bonus paid for employee that threw 5,000 sheets in 7.5 hours versus the bonus they received for throwing 5,000 sheets in 6.5 hours, when downtime was factored in, was huge.

There are a couple downsides to the bonus system that I feel I should mention.

Ergonomics. When an employee figures out that they get their best numbers when they are throwing blankets from their right side, they get to where they don’t want to either rotate out of that job or throw blankets from the left side. This will eventually cause a repetitive motion accident and then both the employee and the company lose in the long run.

Overtime rules. When you are paying a piece bonus, then you really need to pay a higher amount for the piece bonus that was earned when the employee was working in an overtime state. This naturally can become a tracking nightmare. NOTE: I am not a labor lawyer, but if you are considering this methodology, I would certainly reach out to one.

2. Real-time electronic coaching. This is my preferred method. Each employee has an individual counter that tells them whether they are reaching their standards or not.

I prefer the system to give the feedback via the color of their lights—red if they are below standard, yellow if they are close to being too slow, and green if they are at the correct pace. Most systems allow for you to have a separate standard for each employee. A new employee cannot produce as fast as experienced employee.

We try to analyze an employee’s numbers each week and change the target count accordingly. If an employee is always in the red or always in the green, then the target number should be adjusted. Keep the target number to where they are constantly working to stay in the green or out of the red, this will help keep them engaged.

Equipment Manufacturing: Bob Fesmire, Ellis Corp., Itasca, Ill.     

Being in manufacturing of large capital equipment, we have some tasks that are repetitive, but nothing compared to feeding napkins into an ironer all day. I see many good examples in plants of people being celebrated for their work.

I can say that for us at Ellis and Ludell, we do our best to rotate jobs and cross train as much as possible. This way our people kept active in learning multiple tasks. This is good for our people and for the company in that no one person only does one task.

To that end, we created what we call a Skillset Matrix. This rates people 0-4 on every task in our plants, with 0 being no experience and 4 being they have skills to teach others.

Some people push to learn more; some we ask to learn more. It depends on the person’s motivation.

The different levels also mean more pay, so if they wish to get paid more, they need to learn more. It helps us in taking away personal bias that can naturally occur.

We can all do a better job of public recognition, but when done properly and in the right intervals, it is a great tool for employees and, frankly, the right thing to do as well.

Consulting Services: David Bernstein, Propeller Solutions Group, Park City, Utah

Several months ago, I found myself in a client’s waiting room, waiting for their previous appointment to end so that we could start our planned meeting. Adorning the walls were items I’ve become accustomed to seeing in waiting rooms around the world, including framed business licenses, association membership certificates, accreditations, sponsored sports teams and photos of the business going back to when laundry was delivered by horse drawn carriages.

Among these was one of those motivational “Successories” posters, this one showing a small stand of trees standing apart from a larger forest. The sun shone between and among the trunks of the small stand of trees, each casting a long shadow on the grassy meadow in the foreground.

Beneath the photo was the word “collaborate” in all caps and a slogan that stuck with me. It said, “to stand apart from the competition, you must first stand together as a team.”

Isn’t that the truth?

Don’t get me wrong, there is no management challenge that can be solved through the use of posters or signs alone, particularly the challenge of employee recognition and motivation. If that were the case, parody web sites like would not be selling spoofs of these ubiquitous motivational posters.

That said, there is wisdom in the thought expressed by that poster in the laundry company waiting room, especially in troubled times during which people need to feel welcome, appreciated and part of a greater effort.

And while every single team member (you included) is motivated by the money in their paycheck, there are other ways to help motivate, inspire and reward team members to help ensure their personal success and the success of the entire enterprise.

It has been said that an army marches on its stomach, and this holds true for laundry workers, too. It is one of the reasons why there are so many examples of providing food to teams to reward and to help keep them motivated.

Many of you are already familiar with how a simple pizza party, barbecue or morning doughnuts can help put a spring in your employees’ steps. Take these efforts further by, for instance, cooking up and serving those burgers and dogs yourself, surprising the team with popsicles or a sundae bar on a hot day, or serving up hot cocoa (don’t forget the marshmallows) in to-go cups as your team heads home on a wintry afternoon.

Many companies give their team members cards or send them emails to recognize birthdays and work anniversaries. Too often, however, these conventional means of recognition can seem impersonal and insincere, especially if the employee gets the same card or e-mail year-after-year.

Instead, consider making the celebration more personal by matching the card or e-mail (or birthday cake) to each team member’s interests, hobbies, families, upcoming vacations, etc.

“But David,” I can hear you saying, “what if I don’t know about each of my team member’s interests or hobbies?” That is an excellent question, and I am glad you asked.

Several years ago, I had the pleasure of touring the headquarters of near Las Vegas. While you might think that their business is about shoes, any Zappos employee will tell you that their business is about people, culture, and service, and that if you want to build great customer service, and deliver happiness to both consumers and team members, you need to know your people.

That’s why managers at Zappos are encouraged to spend 20% of their time with their team: to get to know them. Taking the time to get to know team members builds trust and team unity (remember the trees in the poster?) where both leaders and team members can learn from, grow with, and fight for each other.

According to Marcela Gutierrez, manager of Zappos insights and new hire training, “If you take the time to get to know your employees, I mean really get to know them, you will be able to become a mentor.

“The difference between a mentor and a manager is that you will know how to coach them and help them achieve not only professional but personal goals. They will also work harder for you because they will trust you 100%. There’s nothing better than to have someone you can trust and come to for anything.”

Speaking of mentoring, one way to motivate and encourage employees is by encouraging them to learn new and important life and work skills. One way of doing this is by having team members with certain skills mentor and teach those among the team who need those skills. Examples include teaching English, sign language, or computer and Internet skills.

Another way to encourage personal and professional development is by recognizing employees who show particular potential or motivation by offering to pay for outside training and classes that will make them more valuable to your business in the future and offer the potential for career advancement.

Many of our industry’s most respected senior managers have stories to tell about how some manager or supervisor in their past saw potential, even when their jobs involved sweeping floors, sorting soil, or driving a route truck, and how that recognition and encouragement led them to be the leaders they are today.

Another way of recognizing, motivating and encouraging employees is by giving them a voice. One familiar way of doing this is by putting team members from throughout the plant on a safety committee.

Another way is to form focus groups from among each of your various departments. Bring in lunch (or better yet, take them out to lunch) and take the time to ask considerate questions of the group to find out how things are going, what they think could be improved, and what ideas they have about making their jobs easier and your business more profitable.

Nobody knows more about the job than those who do it every hour of every day, so spend these times with your employees. Use the Zappos 80/20 rule and spend 80% of each lunch listening to your team. You will be surprised what you will learn, the confidence they will gain, and the improvements your business will achieve.

Do you have employees who volunteer their time in the community or fundraise for important causes? Celebrate them at work and, better yet, join in the effort along with other managers and staff members to help make an even greater impact on your local community.

Unlike contrived and oft-hated team building sessions, shared experiences at events like these can become among some of your team’s most treasured moments.

Imagine the genuine camaraderie you’ll create when you walk, run or cycle alongside your team members to raise funds and awareness for an important cause, the incredible feelings you’ll generate when you and your team help build or repair a home for someone in need, etc.

We live in the age of the Internet and social media, so be sure that you celebrate your team members publicly for each birthday, anniversary, and personal or professional achievement.

Like the aforementioned cards, be sure that your posts to Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn are personalized to each employee you’re celebrating, and be sure to tag each employee so that their families and friends can share in the celebration as well.

Last, but certainly not least, take the time to show your genuine gratitude to your employees and team members. It is amazing how much can be gained from a simple “thank you” and how much those two words can make someone’s day.

Everyone likes to know when they’re going a good job and when they are appreciated by supervisors and managers. Take time out of every day to show your team members how much you appreciate the work they’re doing,

Some of you may recall my answers to February’s Panel of Experts question about employee retention, many of which apply to this month’s prompt as well, so I encourage you to go back and read my thoughts about company culture, benefits and amenities, and employee engagement apps.

I closed that column by mentioning Underutilized Human Resources as one of the eight wastes of Lean Six Sigma. Making your employees feel welcome, seen, heard and genuinely appreciated can all go a long way to ensuring their long-term success. And yours.

It will likely not surprise you to know that, as I walked out of the meeting with my client, the last thing I saw before walking outside was a poster on the exit door with an image of a road bordered on each side by a row of pink-blossomed cherry trees.

Beneath the trees was the word “gratitude,” again in all caps, followed by the words, “Take time out every day to be thankful for the people in our lives that drive us toward the path of success and for those that have helped us get to where we are today. Have an attitude of gratitude.”

Spend part of each day encouraging collaboration by showing your gratitude, and I can almost guarantee that your business will blossom and stand head and shoulders above the competition.

A Cyberattack Doesn’t Have to Sink Your Stock Price

Executive Summary

Getting hacked is more a question of when than if. But while hacks can be a PR nightmare — and one that rapidly erodes consumer confidence and sinks stock price — they don’t have to be: Cyberattacks are also an opportunity for companies to show transparency, trustworthiness, and to highlight the steps they’ve taken to defend against attacks and the ones they’re investing in. A review of how companies responded to cyberattacks, and how their stock prices fared, produced two recommendations: 1) Lead with what you did right to prepare for this eventuality, and 2) then pivot to how you’re going to improve even more. The best case outcome is to reduce, or even eliminate, the cyber-incident’s short-term negative impact, such as on stock price, through a systematic response strategy and proactive customer attitude, and turning the experience into a trigger for expanded organizational learning to create positive long-term impact and digital innovation.

px photography/Getty Images

Over 60% of the Fortune 1000 had at least one public data breach over the last decade, according to a Cyentia Institute research report. On an annual basis, it is estimated that one in four Fortune 1000 firms will suffer a cyber loss event. There is an estimated cyber attack every 39 seconds. As is often stated, “it is not a matter of if, but when you will suffer a cyber attack.” Are you prepared?

A hack can sink a company’s stock price and leave investors fuming. In the wake of the Capital One hack, which was publicly reported in July 2019, the company’s stock price dropped nearly 6% immediately in after-hours trading, losing a total of 13.89% over two weeks. Likewise, following the announcement of the Equifax breach back in early September of 2017, the company saw a similar negative reaction from the stock market with its stock price plunging from $142.72 to $92.98 in just one week. What is worse, its market share dropped significantly in 2017 and has struggled to recover ever since.

Getting hacked doesn’t have to be a disaster, however. The JP Morgan Chase breach in 2014, for instance, didn’t impact its stock growth negatively, in fact, its stock actually rose slightly. These counterintuitive outcomes indicate that many factors determine the fallout from data breach incidents. They also show that there are steps a company can take to not only mitigate reputational damage, but sometimes even end up improving their position. Our research and review of more than 14 published studies revealed that the consequences of a data breach incident may differ depending on the industry, firm size, the type of information exposed, and the response strategy. Here we will focus on the firm’s response strategy, the area that the company has the most control over.

How to Respond When You’re Hacked

Let’s start with what not to do. First off, don’t try to hide that it happened. Strategies such as hiding the existence of the incident or finding excuses to minimize the organization’s responsibility can result in even worse consequences. One example is when Uber paid hackers through its bug bounty program to cover up a data breach incident in 2016. When the incident was publicly disclosed in 2017, it resulted in significant damage to Uber’s reputation, and a $148 million fine from the Federal Trade Commission in 2018. And while many companies trot out the CEO to say “I am deeply sorry for what has happened” or fire the chief security officer, neither acts will likely be much help.

So what should you do? There are two key pieces of advice: 1) Lead with what you did right to prepare for this eventuality, and 2) then pivot to how you’re going to improve even more. 

Lead with the cybersecurity measures already in place. Our analysis shows that both customers and the stock market are reassured by a CEO who immediately and effectively communicates about the cybersecurity mechanisms the company already has in place. Broadcasting that a serious investment was made before a hack shows that the company took security, and especially the privacy of its customers, seriously. Even if these measures didn’t ultimately thwart the attack, discussing them up can mitigate some of the damage: data encryption can guarantee confidentiality, a backup system can help to speed up recover, and network segmentation can isolate the incident to reduce the magnitude of the impact. If you’re reading this and you haven’t been hacked yet, now would be a good time to double check security measures like these.

Pivot to planned improvements. Immediately after the breach, remedial actions should be taken and publicized, such as announcing a big increase in budget to further improve corporate cybersecurity capability. Hiring more cybersecurity professionals to enhance internal cybersecurity capabilities can also contribute to maintaining customers’ trust. For example, after the JP Morgan Chase breach, the company released extensive information on the attack and doubled its investment in security.

On top of internal improvements, it is wise to publicly offer all customers a monitoring service, such as LifeLock, to help avoid any potential abuse of their data, such as identity theft. Doing so — and advertising that you’re doing it — makes clear that customers are in good hands and are going to be taken care of. Together, these post-breach recovery strategies helped organizations to reduce or eliminate short-term negative stock price drop, according to our analysis.

Prepare Now

These immediate and well-planned responses are critical to restoring confidence. But even though you may not always be able to prevent a cyberattack, you can prepare for it. All too often we have seen CEOs immediately make statements to the press — only to backtrack within hours or days — making it seem like the company does not know what it is doing. Of course, this seriously reduces confidence in the company.

Our research affirmed the importance of cyberattack fire drills to address this. These involve having top management, often including the board, participate in a simulated cyberattack to develop and practice response procedures and communications strategies. We have run several such fire drills with companies: We introduce a series of events — sometimes as video clips as might be reported on the news — and have the executives respond to each event, after which we assess what worked well, what did not, and what additional training and preparation is needed before a real event occurs. If your company is not already practicing cyberattack fire drills, it should do so as fast as possible.

Importantly, a cyberattack is a crisis, but it can also be an opportunity. Leaders should recall Winston Churchill’s guidance, “never waste a good crisis.” While a cyberattack brings the targeted company into the spotlight, it also provides free publicity for the company to showcase their responsibility and efforts to protect stakeholders, customers, suppliers, and the community. That is why a well-rehearsed action plan and communication strategy is so important. Instead of blaming the cybersecurity team or gullible employees, organizations should turn those incidents into opportunities to improve and optimize their business by increasing transparency, enhancing cybersecurity maturity, and improving competitive position.

The best case outcome is to reduce, or even eliminate, the cyber-incident’s short-term negative impact (such as on stock price) through a systematic response strategy and proactive customer attitude. Then turn the experience into a trigger for expanded organizational learning to create positive long-term impact and digital innovation. This should be the mission for every organizational leader. If all these things are done, and done well, the company can emerge better, stronger, and smarter.

Acknowledgement: This research was supported, in part, by funds from the members of the Cybersecurity at MIT Sloan (CAMS) consortium.

The Call of “Not Knowing”– How Uncertainty is Still the Test of Leadership

Guest post by Randall P. White:

American leaders are rising to the occasion.

You just have to look a little deeper. There have been great examples of leadership in our multiple crises of the moment.

Mayors, governors, even some sheriffs and police officers, are showing how it’s done. People who are otherwise obscure on the national scene are now showing up in news feeds and quenching a yearning for sanity, direction and confidence.

Such as? Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms of Atlanta relating to us as a parent and an executive, saying enough is enough and here are things we’re doing about it. Sheriff Chris Swanson in Michigan who “protected and served” protesters, by joining their march. Dr. Anthony Fauci laying out both what he knows and what he doesn’t know. Even without a definitive answer, we know he has a process based on data and rationality with a goal of public safety and avoiding death.

In all of this, it’s not about being a better person. It’s about knowing how to be a conduit for solutions—and creating a safe space to listen to ideas and try the best one’s out—searching for viable solutions in an uncertain world.

Crisis leadership is a crucible and it’s natural for us to be inspired by what it can produce.

We are seeing that leadership is a calling and it’s often more geeky than macho and certainly not authoritarian. Well-developed leaders are piqued by “not knowing” and motivated by the challenge to find out. They enjoy learning and they don’t mind mistakes as long as the mistakes are the kind where we learn and grow and ultimately leapfrog us forward to a viable solution.

Then there are leaders who really are geeks: Bill Gates, Jack Dorsey and Elon Musk. They’re lucky to have more of a sandbox than a crucible. Gates, Dorsey and Musk are like brainy action figures of leadership. Fascinating and fun to watch. Who doesn’t like seeing a reusable rocket back its way down to a landing pad for the first time?

Yet, Bottoms, Fauci and Swanson are a little more compelling right now, by being less preordained. Not nationally known. Less expected. And more attainable examples of leaders. Each rose to the occasion. Each has to rally followership—but they are believable and approachable and so, they are relatable in how they approach seemingly impossible situations in an ever-increasing complex environment of crisis atop crisis.

Real leaders, regardless how they come packaged–gender, ethnicity, nationality– aren’t afraid of what they don’t know. They run toward the danger and the unknown so that their people are energized to solve important problems, whether it’s racism in a police department or landing a first stage rocket on a stationary platform at sea. Each is very difficult.

They’re the people who come forward in a crisis that grab our imagination, like Churchill or Franklin Delano Roosevelt rose to their wholly unknown occasions during World War II.

In contrast to the current president they are not caught up in themselves. They show up for the followers, knowing that they have a calling to represent the best of the followers and to help them be successful by creating a space where they can try their best to solve the problems at hand.

So we see in our tumult that leaders are okay with being uncertain. That’s what they signed on for. Leadership has always been about bringing people through “not knowing.”

Not knowing we’d be where we ended up six months later, I wrote a new chapter to Relax, It’s Only Uncertainty in September thinking it was time to re-release the title, after 19 years.

My now-retired colleague Philip Hodgson and I authored Relax as a field guide for leadership–the culmination of a decade studying how people manage ambiguity and its attendant uncertainty. This work also resulted in The Ambiguity Architect, a 360 to assess a person’s ability to tolerate or master uncertainty. The instrument has consistently suggested that high performers do well on this scale. And our experience suggests that dealing with uncertainty successfully can be learned and improved.

The basic lessons of Relax, first published as Y2K faded into the rear-view mirror, remain relevant and are taught in global business schools’ leadership curriculum.

They’re also demonstrated by our public sector rising stars.

With Covid-19 and mass civil disobedience we see leaders calling on traits like “being motivated by mysteries,” future scanning, simplifying and enthusiasm (to name half of the book’s eight Enablers for managing uncertainty).

We can observe this in new leaders to the fore like Bottoms, Fauci, and Swanson. They break complex, nuanced and sometimes abstract situations into simple statements we all can share: citizens don’t trust authority, we can’t overwhelm our health care system, and the chaos needs to stop for everyone. 

As a business professor, I have to ask how can business leaders learn as we watch these ascending leaders in society? Chaos, ambiguity and uncertainty bring opportunity for good leaders to not only emerge, but also invent new solutions, new competitive advantages. And a better workplace, in which learning is constant, inclusion is an advantage and imagination is allowed to thrive.

Randall P. White, PhD., is a social psychologist, executive coach and managing partner of the Executive Development Group. He is Co-head of Leadership at HEC Paris and author of Relax, It’s Only Uncertainty.